Dermatophytes-Onychomycosis-Fungus References

Toenail Fungus and Other Fungal Infection References

Elewski BE, Charif MA: Prevalence of onychomycosis in patients attending a dermatology clinic in northeastern Ohio for other conditions, letter. Arch Dermatol 1997;133(9):1172-1173

Zaias N: The Nail in Health and Disease, ed 2. Norwalk, CT, Appleton & Lange, 1990, pp 106-119

Kemna ME, Elewski BE: A U.S. epidemiologic survey of superficial fungal diseases. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996;35(4):539-542

Elewski BE: Large-scale epidemiological study of the causal agents of onychomycosis: mycological findings from the Multicenter Onychomycosis Study of Terbinafine, letter. Arch Dermatol 1997;133(10):1317-1318

Piérard GE, Arrese JE, De Doncker P: Antifungal activity of itraconazole and terbinafine in human stratum corneum: a comparative study. J Am Acad Dermatol 1995;32(3):429-435

De Doncker P, Decroix J, Piérard GE, et al: Antifungal pulse therapy for onychomycosis: a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic investigation of monthly cycles of 1-week pulse therapy with itraconazole. Arch Dermatol 1996;132(1):34-41

Arenas R, Dominguez-Cherit J, Fernandez LM: Open randomized comparison of itraconazole versus terbinafine in onychomycosis. Int J Dermatol 1995;34(2):138-143

Brautigam M, Nolting S, Schopf RE, et al: Randomised double blind comparison of terbinafine and itraconazole for treatment of toenail tinea infection: Seventh Lamisil German Onychomycosis Study Group. BMJ 1995;311(7010):919-922 [published erratum in BMJ 1995;311(7016):1350]

Goodfield MJ: Short-duration therapy with terbinafine for dermatophyte onychomycosis: a multicentre trial. Br J Dermatol 1992;126(suppl 39):33-35

van der Schroeff JG, Cirkel PK, Crijns MB, et al: A randomized treatment duration-finding study of terbinafine in onychomycosis. Br J Dermatol 1992;126(suppl 39):36-39

Gupta AK, Lynde CW, Lauzon GJ, Mehlmauer MA, et al: Cutaneous adverse effects associated with terbinafine therapy: 10 case reports and a review of the literature. Br J Dermatol 1998;138(3):529-532.

Assaf RR, Elewski BE: Intermittent fluconazole dosing in patients with onychomycosis: results of a pilot study. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996;35(2 pt 1):216-219

Smith SW, Sealy DP, Schneider E, et al: An evaluation of the safety and efficacy of fluconazole in the treatment of onychomycosis. South Med J 1995;88(12):1217-1220

Montero-Gei F, Robles-Soto ME, Schlager H: Fluconazole in the treatment of severe onychomycosis. Int J Dermatol 1996;35(8):587-588

Gudlaugsson O, Gillespie S, Lee K, et al. Attributable mortality of nosocomial candidemia, revisited. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 37: 1172-1177.

Kao AS, Brandt ME, Pruitt WR, et al. The epidemiology of candidemia in two United States cities: results of a population-based active surveillance. Clin Infect Dis 1999; 29: 1164-1170.

Ostrosky-Zeichner L, Rex JH, Bennett JE, et al. Deeply invasive candidiasis. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2002; 16: 821-835.

Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ. Role of sentinel surveillance of candidemia: trends in species distribution and antifungal susceptibility. J Clin Microbiol 2002: 40; 3551-3557.

Rex JH, Walsh TJ, Sobel JD, et al. Practice guidelines for the treatment of candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis 2000; 30: 662-678.

Sanglard D, Odds FC. Resistance of Candida species to antifungal agents: molecular mechanisms and clinical consequences. Lancet Infect Dis 2002; 2: 73-85.

Sobel JD, Faros Force RW, Foxman B, et al. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: epidemiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic considerations. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998; 178: 203-211.

Sobel JD, Ohmit SE, Schuman P, et al. The evolution of Candida species and fluconazole susceptibility among oral and vaginal isolates recovered from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive and at-risk HIV-seronegative women. J Infect Dis 2001; 183: 286-293.

Trick WE, Fridkin SK, Edwards JR, et al. Secular trend of hospital-acquired candidemia among intensive care unit patients in the United States during 1989-1999. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 35: 627-630.

Buck DS, Nidorf DM, Addino JG. Comparison of two topical preparations for the treatment of onchyomycosis: Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and clotrimazole. J Fam Pract 1994;38:601-5.

Ledezma E : Efficacy of ajoene, an organosulphur derived from garlic, in the short-term therapy of tinea pedis. Mycoses 1996 Sep-Oct;39(9-10):393-5. (Garlic)

San-Blas G: Inhibition of growth of the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by ajoene. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1989 Sep;33(9):1641-4.

Tong MM: Tea tree oil in the treatment of tinea pedis. Australas J Dermatol 1992;33(3):145-9. (Tea Tree Oil)

Aly, R., R. J. Hay, A. Del Palacio, and R. Galimberti. 2000. Epidemiology of tinea capitis. Med Mycol. 38:183-188.

Aman, S., T. S. Haroon, I. Hussain, M. A. Bokhari, and K. Khurshid. 2001. Tinea unguium in Lahore, Pakistan. Med Mycol. 39:177-180.

Arenas, R., J. Dominguez-Cherit, and L. M. Fernandez. 1995. Open randomized comparison of itraconazole versus terbinafine in onychomycosis. Int. J. Dermatol. 34:138-43.

De Doncker, P., J. Decroix, G. E. Pierard, D. Roelant, R. Woestenborghs, P. Jacqmin, F. Odds, A. Heremans, P. Dockx, and D. Roseeuw. 1996. Antifungal pulse therapy for onychomycosis. A pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic investigation of monthly cycles of 1-week pulse therapy with itraconazole. Arch. Dermatol. 132:34-41.

De Hoog, G. S., J. Guarro, J. Gene, and M. J. Figueras. 2000. Atlas of Clinical Fungi, 2nd ed, vol. 1. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Elewski, B. E. 2000. Tinea capitis: a current perspective. J Am Acad Dermatol. 42:1-20; quiz 21-4.

Evans, E. G. V. 1998. Causative pathogens in onychomycosis and the possibility of treatment resistance: A review. J. Amer. Acad. Dermatol. 38:S32-S36.

Fernandez-Torres, B., H. Vazquez-Veiga, X. Llovo, M. Pereiro, Jr., and J. Guarro. 2000. In vitro susceptibility to itraconazole, clotrimazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine of 100 isolates of Trichophyton rubrum. Chemotherapy. 46:390-394.

Hay, R. J., Y. M. Clayton, M. K. Moore, and G. Midgely. 1988. An evaluation of itraconazole in the management of onychomycosis. Br. J. Dermatol. 119:359-66.

Jessup, C. J., N. S. Ryder, and M. A. Ghannoum. 2000. An evaluation of the in vitro activity of terbinafine. Med Mycol. 38:155-159.

Jessup, C. J., J. Warner, N. Isham, I. Hasan, and M. A. Ghannoum. 2000. Antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes: Establishing a medium for inducing conidial growth and evaluation of susceptibility of clinical isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 38:341-344.

Larone, D. H. 1995. Medically Important Fungi – A Guide to Identification, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.

Macura, A. B. 1993. In vitro susceptibility of dermatophytes to antifungal drugs: a comparison of two methods. Int. J. Dermatol. 32:533-6.

Nweze, E. I. 2001. Etiology of dermatophytoses amongst children in northeastern Nigeria. Med Mycol. 39:181-184.

Regli, P., and H. Ferrari. 1989. In vitro action spectrum of a new antifungal agent derived from morpholine: amorolfin:. Pathol Biol (Paris).

Roldan, Y. B., S. Mata-Essayag, and C. Hartung. 2000. Erysipelas and tinea pedis. Mycoses. 43:181-3.

Rubio-Calvo, C., J. Gil-Tomas, A. Rezusta-Lopez, and R. Benito-Ruesca. 2001. The aetiological agents of tinea capitis in Zaragoza (Spain). Mycoses. 44:55-58.

Sabota, J., R. Brodell, G. W. Rutecki, and W. L. Hoppes. 1996. Severe tinea barbae due to Trichophyton verrucosum infection in dairy farmers. Clin Infect Dis. 23:1308-10.

Salama, S. M., H. Atwal, A. Gandhi, J. Simon, M. Poglod, H. Montaseri, J. K. Khan, T. Furukawa, H. Saito, K. Nishida, F. Higashitani, T. Uji, N. Unemi, M. Daneshtalab, and R. G. Micetich. 2001. In vitro and in vivo activities of Syn2836, Syn2869, Syn2903, and Syn2921: New series of triazole antifungal agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:2420-2426.

Squeo, R. F., R. Beer, D. Silvers, I. Weitzman, and M. Grossman. 1998. Invasive Trichophyton rubrum resembling blastomycosis infection in the immunocompromised host. J Am Acad Dermatol. 39:379-80.

St-Germain, G., and R. Summerbell. 1996. Identifying Filamentous Fungi – A Clinical Laboratory Handbook, 1st ed. Star Publishing Company, Belmont, California.

Sutton, D. A., A. W. Fothergill, and M. G. Rinaldi (ed.). 1998. Guide to Clinically Significant Fungi, 1st ed. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.

Venugopal, P. V., and T. V. Venugopal. 1994. Antidermatophytic activity of allylamine derivatives. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 37:381-8.

Weitzman, I., and R. C. Summerbell. 1995. The dermatophytes. Clin Microbiol Rev. 8:240-59.

Zaias, N., B. Glick, and G. Rebell. 1996. Diagnosing and treating onychomycosis [see comments]. J Fam Pract. 42:513-8.